February 25th, 2010

1) After Goodma’s demystification of the process of reading, how has your approach to your pedagogy changed?

2) What does perception mean to you and how does it relate to our students?

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15 Responses to “#2”

  1. Jillian Pearsall on February 26, 2010 9:48 am

    1. My approach has changed in becoming more refined due to the explanations of reading as the specifics that make up reading were displayed.Goodman reveals the relationship between the writer and reader which involves constructing meaning from the text. Goodman states, “While it is true that the form a text takes follows its function, it is also true that functions are both limited by and take advantage of forms.” This is true, when looking at format conventions there are different meanings behind text form for example, lists, tickets, recipes, etc. will include different forms of information due to the function and form of that particular text. Goodman gives an example of a little boy who makes up his own punctuation to reveal the feeling of the text. In written language, the only punctuation that revels any emotion is the exclamation point. Therefore, “A listener gets all kinds of signals of the feelings, moods, and intent of the speaker from voice quality, facial expressions, and body movements, in addition to the intonation, volume, and speed of the utterance.” It is harder for readers to pull out the emotional state behind the text to construct meaning. Goodman displays the different purposes of reading which include: environmental reading, occupational reading, informational reading, recreational reading, etc. therefore revealing how reading works. Goodman states, “The distinction between comprehending as a process and comprehension as a product is important and useful.” Along with defining comprehension, Goodman explains the uses of miscue analysis, which are the “means of examining comprehending as it takes place during the act of reading.” It is important to analyze children’s miscues to determine weaknesses in their development of different language cueing systems. Goodman indulges the reader by examining the three major language cueing systems which include: semantics (meaning cues), syntax (grammar cues), and graphophonic (visual and auditory cues). All of the intertwining of these language cueing systems reveals if children are comprehending the text. These specific components of reading have helped me develop my pedagogy.

    2. Perception is the way an individual views a situation, a person, or an event. This view is one’s opinion which includes the individual’s beliefs and experiences. If a student perceives the teacher in a positive light they will be more willing to complete the assignments, and participate in class. Teachers some times have a belief about their students before really getting to know them or understanding their background. Students can have a negative or positive perception of ELL students in their classroom because they are different from them. They don’t understand where those students are coming from. This is where it is the teachers job to deliver that background knowledge to inform all of the students in the classroom. Perception is like making a judgement, the judgment can be supported or unsupported but that is up to the person making the decision.

  2. Krissy O'Brien on February 26, 2010 1:17 pm

    1.) My pedagogy has definitely changed due to the demystification of the process of reading. Reading is so much more than decoding and comprehension. This, in my opinion, makes it even more interesting to be a reading specialist. Goodman’s model of reading is “reader-centered, system based and meaning focused.” Reading, writing, and written texts are integrated into the process of reading. The reader manipulates the graphic input and cognitive strategies to construct the meaning. It is not the teacher, nor the author. I think this is a very important point. When we listen to our students reading or read their writing there is so much more than just miscues and spelling mistakes. There is meaning and as teachers we need to find it and identify it. When you look for it you will find it. For example, the birthday card made by Aaron, a kindergartener, was a mix of letters going all different directions. But if you really look at it, it makes perfect sense. Aaron has sense of the language genre of the birthday card and the conventions of writing. He spells the full sound sequence he hears. While reading my students work, I will look for their meaning and understand their inventive spelling. Making sense is essential to reading in all languages.
    Goodman states that “Comprehension, at some levels, is always the end product of any act of reading. During the reading, the reader is engaged in comprehending, that is, in trying to make sense of the text.” This means that we should check for the understanding of our students, as well as teach them strategies to self monitor their understanding while reading. I am always more aware of the language cue systems. The graphophonic system is the oral phonological symbols for speech and orthographic symbols for writing. This is phonics. Students may use spelling, sound patterns, or phonic relationships as cues in reading. The lexico-grammatical system is the structure of the text. The symbols come together into a complete range of relationships. “The patterns assign grammatical functions to clauses, phrases, and words within the sentences which is the syntax. The semantic-pragmatic system is “the whole system by which language may represent highly complex social and personal meaning

    2.) Perception is an act of observing and the awareness of surrounding objects and conditions. Our perception is inside of us and people have different perceptions of everything. I think our perception is also based off our feelings and emotions. My perception of a student may be totally different from another teacher’s perception. We make judgments by what we observe. I also believe our perceptions are not always correct and that we should get to understand each of our students. It is very important to not let our perceptions get in the way. What we observe in the classroom for 6 hours is not always who the student really is. We do not know what they do, how they act, or what they deal with at home. All we know is what we observe and what they tell us. This is our perception of them.

  3. Gina Genovese on February 26, 2010 1:51 pm

    Gina Genovese
    Comment #2 February 26, 2010
    My approach to teaching reading has been changed due to the amount of research Goodman accounted for that goes into a student’s ability to read. As a teacher I have always wondered when a student is continuously struggling with reading is there more to it that cannot be detected in the classroom. Goodman has proven this to be true. Learning to read is an extremely difficult task. It requires the full use of communication, language, visual, oral, and a social connection to a text. When teaching literacy it is important to dismiss the notion that reading is memorizing vocabulary words or being able to decode letter sounds. It is a process that requires the overall use of linguistics. While I agree that certain low level readers may benefit from reading strategies that we teach we must remember that the overall process of reading is much more neurological that educators like to admit. Goodman states that the overall theory of reading comes from a model that incorporates the overall use of all major language levels, symbolic, lexico-grammer and meaning. Goodman says that it is through these three functions of language that serves the simultaneously, ideational, interpersonal and textual approach to reading. I do believe as teachers we unknowingly take these scientific approaches to learning and attempt to use practical teaching strategies to meet these needs. However I feel that after reading Goodman’s research teachers can unfortunately improve these readers to a certain level. It appears that students with severe learning disabilities are more neurological then we think.

    I think perceptions will always vary based on an individual’s makeup. While as teachers our job is to focus on theories and teaching methods I think at times our own judgments or preferences become part of the classroom. To me perceptions mean the individual way a person personally views a situation. Now by having your own perception on a cause means that you are indirectly incorporating your personal opinions or biases into a situation. Although I am making this sound negative I think it is more a persona inability to be completely neutral in a situation. Ironically I would relate this to us as adults using our own backround knowledge in to a new situation. Sadly at times educators do allow their own perceptions to unofficially “diagnose” a student based on what we see and feel as teachers. At times these pre deceived notions may in turn offer a student an extended amount of classroom support. While other times we may be unintentionally holding a child back because of the way we perceive their unique situation.

  4. Erica Menchin on February 26, 2010 2:04 pm

    Response #1

    Goodman states, “Meaning is in the reader and the writer, not in the text.” (Page 12) Before reading about this transactional relationship between the reader and the writer, I always believed reading involved the interaction between the reader and the text. I neglected the fact that the writer always has a meaning or point to convey and it is up to the writer to make the reader understand this message. “Readers expect writers to say something in a sensible manner” (page 16) Therefore, if a child doesn’t seem to comprehend the writer’s message, it is not considered effective reading.
    In his work, Goodman also explains the difference between comprehending and comprehension. One thing in particular that stood out to me was the amount of responsibility teachers have in determining whether or not a child has achieved that final product of comprehension. In light of learning how much reading entails, I know there is so much more to consider when assessing a child’s comprehension. Consequently, I don’t think I will be as quick to move a child up to the next independent reading level.
    Another aspect of Goodman’s demystification of the process of reading that has altered my pedagogy is that readers have different purposes and intensions of reading. Therefore, when I am testing a child on their reading comprehension, I will be more aware they will be on their best behavior. As a result, they will try their best to employ all the proper reading strategies. I may want to consider more informal assessments of their reading comprehension so the child doesn’t feel as though he or she is being tested.

    Response #2

    To me perception is one’s take on something. There are no two people in the world that have the same perceptions, due to a number of factors including where someone was born, how they were raised and their life experiences. Perception applies to our students in many ways. For one, teachers have different perceptions of students. Before each school year begins, often times the teachers that taught the students the previous year, offer their opinions on those students. At times, the current teacher will have a different “take” on that student. When this happens, it is important to consider people’s perceptions but not treat them as the be all and end all.
    In addition, the students in our classrooms come from various cultures and backgrounds. They each bring a different schema to the classroom. As a result, we as teachers should bare in mind their background differences will likely lead to different perceptions. Particularly when it comes to reading, no two students will perceive a text in the same manner. We have to be cognizant of these differences in perception and use them to our advantage to create meaningful and thought-provoking conversations in our classroom.

  5. Judy Feder on February 27, 2010 5:05 pm

    1)I hadn’t really thought of reading as a transaction before reading Goodman’s article. I believed that reading was a process in which readers construct their own meaning of a text based on their prior knowledge and experiences. Goodman’s explanation, however, that “The reader constructs a text through transactions with the published text and the reader’s schemata are also transformed in the process of transacting with the text through the assimilation and accommodation…” (p. 15) put the transactional view into perspective for me. Comprehension is based on “how well the writer constructs the text and how well the reader reconstructs it and constructs meaning…” (p.19), as Goodman states. There is not always only one correct answer. Teachers can encourage and discuss multiple views on a piece of writing as long as students back up their ideas with proof from the text. Goodman argues that what a student comes away with from a text is a combination of how well the text was read and what was known before reading the text. Therefore, while it is imperative for students to utilize the language cue systems and cognitive strategies while reading, it is also important for teachers to provide their students with background knowledge and meaningful experiences in the classroom so that they can make sense of what they are reading. Goodman’s claims also made me understand reading as a “psycholinguistic guessing game” in which children are interacting with the language cue systems, cognitive strategies, and cycles in order to understand the texts. With his demystification of these elements of reading, I have more of an understanding of what the reading process truly entails for our students, and in turn I can try and help them gain control over these systems and strategies.

    2)To me, perception is one’s views and opinions on things in the world around us. There are many different ways in which people can perceive things, especially since we all have such different backgrounds, values, and experiences. Since our students come from many different backgrounds and cultures with different values and life experiences, we can expect that there will be many different perceptions of one thing. While reading, a child uses his/her schema to make sense of the text and create his/her view of it. It is common that a classroom of children will have differing perceptions of one text. I believe that whole group or small group discussion of these varying perceptions can open our students’ minds to different ideas, and place value on them.

  6. Liz Manolis on February 27, 2010 6:13 pm

    One point that Goodman made in the article that I think changed my approach to pedagogy is that it is a fairly new idea that readers control the text they are reading. Goodman described the pre-Copercian idea of the reader, when reading a text, being passive. Goodman gives the example of the student who read the text, which obviously should be in third person narration. However, when the student read the text, he read it so the text is in first person. Goodman makes the point that this “mistake” would be seen as a miscue. I agree with his thinking that this would/should not be seen as a miscue. In fact, I would think that this type of reading would have actually required a higher level of thinking from the reader. It is obvious that he can very well understand what message is being conveyed, but he is also able to change the text in a way he sees fit. It shows to me that the process of reading is not just a black in white process of decoding letters and symbols accurately in order to acquier an objective idea. The aspects of reading, such as punctuation, are important to conveying the writer’s meaning. However, in its way, reading can be extremely subjective, and that is important to keep in mind when teaching reading.

    Perception is a person’s own interpretation of the things they see, think, and feel. Perception is unique to every individual. This relates to our students in that, when they are in our classrooms, they bring their own perceptions of the world. Their perceptions of things vary based on their lives, their experiences, and even their personalities. When teaching, it is important to realize that students will have varying perceptions to texts. A student’s individual perceptions of the world around them is one of the main factors in why reading can be so subjective.

  7. Jacqueline Singer on February 27, 2010 10:46 pm

    #1. After reading Goodman’s two articles; “What is reading?” and “Reading, Writing, and Written Texts, A Transactional Sociopsycholinguistic View” I feel more educated on the concept of reading and its processes and most importantly my entire pedagogy on teaching reading and writing has changed. Not only did Goodman’s explanations change my prior understandings on what reading really is but I feel I can better value reading on a whole. Prior to taking this class and reading these articles I assumed reading was simply the action of decoding letters and words, when really it is so much more. “…the sense you make of a text depends on the sense you bring to it,” (Goodman.) Reading is part of a language process, which exists in both oral and written language; this is what makes reading a psycholinguistic process. I never thought of reading as a transaction before. Goodman explains how reading is a process between the reader and the unknown. The reader constructs a schemata and sense of discovery with the text. These processes are both transactional and sociopsycholinguistic. I need to focus more on this concept. With this in mind, I plan to connect the several reading components, (i.e. listening comprehension, vocabulary, reading comprehension, spelling, writing) together more often.
    I strongly agree with Goodman when he talks about taking responsibility as a reader and not relying on the book or teacher to put the content into your brain for you. This something I definitely plan on urging to my students. Even in the younger grades the children need to know that the reading is up to them. I will provide the necessary skills and they will apply the meaning.
    Another point Goodman brings up, that changed my perspective of reading is that standardized spelling has become an issue for many students. This text feature really needs to be further investigated. “Readers expect a word to be spelt consistently, but they don’t expect all similar sounding words to be consistently spelled,” (Goodman.) After understanding this I plan on trying to prevent this from happening with my students. I do not want them to fall into a habit and then wind up lost. I didn’t realize how complicated English could be until Goodman explained how the English language is difficult to outsiders because of all the text conventions, abbreviations, and acronyms. I will try to take this all into consideration as I plan my lessons and I will try to remember to stay patient with my students. Maybe at times I need to try to put myself in their shoes.
    One of the biggest things that changed my perspective is when Goodman states, “Those who learn to read but not to enjoy reading will rarely choose to read during leisure time.” This is why I plan to leave room for student choice. “If the student does not have kind some of connection and interest in the reading it is unlikely that the reading will come naturally to them.” This is absolutely true and tends to be undervalued.
    “I need to understand that my students may come out with different meanings to the same given text because each of them will take something different out of it and according to Goodman, have different intentions. Finally, I realize that reading is completely developmental and I need to remind myself of this constantly. In conclusion, being flexible and open minded is key. These aspects of reading have led me to better understanding authentic literacy, while using the best practice methodologies.

    #2. “One aspect of perception that must be understood is that learning what not to pay attention to is as important as learning what to attend to,” (Goodman.) When we as people face certain situations we must attempt to sort out the pieces of information that we need in order to make a decision; this is called perception. Really, perception is the ability to become aware. If we tried to hold every piece of information in at once our brain would overload. Most likely we would end up stressing out and getting distracted, which may result in loosing sight of other important things in our lives. Like Goodman tried to explain in his article “Reading, Writing, and Written Texts, A Transactional Sociopsycholinguistic View,” we are not computers; therefore it is only natural that when we read we select what we want to take from the text. In a sense perception keeps one sane.

    Perception has everything to do with our students. Perception is practiced daily by almost everyone. For children, perception is used both socially and academically. In terms of schooling, a student would need perception when learning new material. It is not realistic to assume your students will be able to retain everything you do and say in class. Perception is also what enables one to reflect and mediate their feelings. As a teacher I do not expect my students to be perceptive to everything. Naturally students are going to be perceptive of different things at different times.

  8. Tami Redler on February 28, 2010 12:33 pm

    Assignment #2

    1) After reading Goodman’s article, my approach to pedagogy did change. All the components of reading that we discussed in the previous class were included in my own list of the reading process. But, after reading this article, I realize that it is so much more than what we had discussed. It was interesting that he called the reading process a transactional sociopsycholinguistic view because you don’t realize all the interactions that occur from a person reading a text. The author of a story is communicating in a different way with every person who reads the story. Each person reading a text will have a different meaning based on experiences and prior knowledge of events. Different texts affect different people in different ways. I thought it was interesting when Goodman said “Meaning is in the reader and the writer, not in the text.” I always thought that meaning was in the text, but if you really think about it, the text is just a bunch of words on paper. When writers write texts they have a certain meaning behind it, and when readers read texts they come up with their own meaning.
    Another point Goodman brought up was “An effective text is one that not only expresses the author’s meaning, but is comprehensible to others. It must be a full enough representation of the meaning to suit the needs, background, schemata, and interests of the readers. That’s the other side of the writer-reader contract: readers expect writers to be trying to say something sensible in a sensible manner.” If you think about this, it is very true. If an author writes a text but it is not comprehensible to others, it won’t have any meaning. When writers write texts, they must keep a reader’s point of view in mind. A reader’s job is to try to construct their own meaning of what the writer wrote. I do agree that readers expect writers to be trying to say something sensible because that’s what makes people want to read a text; they want to figure out what the author was saying about a topic, experience, event, etc.

    2) I feel that perception is very similar to what we were discussing in class about “misdagnosing” a student. In order to “misdiagnose” a student, a teacher has to have a perception about them. The perception is the teacher’s observations of the child and how the teacher sees the child. If you see a child acting out in class your perception would be that they have a behavior issue or something is happening at home to cause them to act out. Teachers need to be very careful about their perceptions because you don’t want to tell a parent that something is wrong with their child if in reality you just made a “misdiagnosis” of the problem. Also, different people perceive students in different ways. For example, one teacher may perceive a child as being emotionally disturbed based on behavior in class while another teacher may perceive the child as having a reading problem and they are acting out to cover up their struggles. Perceptions depend on what you know about a student and what you take from what others tell you about the same student. It’s important for teachers to learn as much as possible about a student before making judgments and perceiving a student the wrong way.

  9. Dina Karivalis on February 28, 2010 7:00 pm

    Response to Assignment 1:

    1) While I was not present in class for the running record video, I can still supply some thoughts on the “What is Reading” article as well as my opinion the interesting discussion we had in class where everyone discussed their personal views on reading. I feel that it is hard for teachers to define exactly what reading is. We all know the main components of reading, fluency, decoding, and comprehension. However, within those components there are different levels of ability and understand that makes a reader. I always feel guilty as a teacher, because when I assess my students (using running records or conferencing) I am looking for specific skills that make a “good reader”. According to Goodman, reading involves “making sense of print” and it is difficult for teachers since every student and person does this differently. To develop and true and comprehensive understanding of a text whether it be something you have to read or pleasure reading, every person does this slightly differently. There may be some universal strategies that can help understanding but everyone will tweak those to fit their own comprehension. I think that overall being a strong reader requires knowing yourself as a reader and learner. Which is something much easier to know and understand as an adult then as a child. This is where our jobs as teachers comes into play in how well we know and understand our students and how they learn. It is our job to do for them what we do for ourselves in our adult learning.
    2) I enjoyed the comment that read “teachers are like nurses and many other professionals who are making observations”. I agree it is an observation based profession and we are responsible for using those observations to the best of our ability to our students. I do agree that at times it can be difficult and teachers can make a misdiagnosis. However, one of the good things about being a teacher is that there is a great deal of other personnel in the building and our opinion or “diagnosis” is not the final statement for a child. Our job is to observe, interact, and get to know a child very well. If we suspect a problem it is our professional job to seek another opinion whether it be from a school psychologist or a literacy coach. While this provides a nice support for teachers as well as a second opinion, there is another side to the situation. That is the situation teachers are put in when they are expected to make a diagnosis. Even though it would not be the official diagnosis, our opinion is often held above others when analyzing our students. This can put a lot of pressure on teachers as well as cause what some may call a misdiagnosis. I also feel that some teachers may feel compelled to give an immediate diagnosis or figure out “what is wrong” with a student causing them to misdiagnose. As teachers we owe it to our students and our selves to use our support personnel and take our time when creating statements about a child.
    Response to Assignment 2:
    1) After reading the article by Goodman and refining my opinion of the reading process my pedagogy has definitely been altered. One of the most important things I have come to understand through reading and through my teaching practices is that reading is much more then just decoding, fluency, and comprehension. I think it starts with the individual really knowing and understanding themselves as a “reader”. This can be a difficult concept, especially when we are talking about young children reading. They are learning at such a rapid rate it is difficult for them to understand their own needs when it comes to reading. I think to truly be a reader and to comprehend texts you must know when you do not understand or deeply grasp a subject in text. This is part of the comprehension process that can be especially difficult for students. As an adult I am just know beginning to know myself as a reader. Think about the last time your students have independently said, “I don’t understand this so I am going to make a graphic organizer.” It is something we try to enforce to help them with comprehension but I think the reader needs to have their own strategies that help them truly understand. One way this has shaped my pedagogy is I try to get to know all my students as individual readers and focus on the skills that work for them. Not all students learn the same way, and not all of them will use the same comprehension strategies. It is our job as teachers to help our students get to know themselves and figure out the best learning strategies that work for them.
    2) When I think of perception I think of how one individual views a certain situation. This can be beneficial or detrimental to our students when viewed in a classroom situation. Having a strong opinion or perception in a classroom scenario can be beneficial in developing lessons, figuring out the needs of your students, and creating a teaching philosophy for yourself. However, if you are not willing to alter your perception based on students needs or the needs of a class, that is when it can be harmful to your pedagogy. I hear so many times in a school teachers say things like, “Well I have been teaching it this way for ten years, there’s no reason to change it now”. That to me is just a silly way to perceive this profession. Like many other professions teaching is constantly changing it’s methods and practices. We integrate new technology, ideas, and theories to help us shape out classrooms and curriculums. To me this is a good and positive thing. While there is something to be said about traditional methods, I feel you need to flexible with your perception of what works for your students. Our classes change year to year, why should out teaching methods? Consider this: going to a hospital that uses old surgery techniques and does not update their equipment. Would you want to get your surgery done there? I don’t think so.

  10. Colleen Ferry on February 28, 2010 7:43 pm

    My approach to reading has changed in that I feel I have a deeper understanding of all of the transactions that take place when a student is learning to read. Goodman describes comprehension as how the reader constructs meaning from the text. When the writer constructs the text, they may have a different meaning in mind, but different readers can interpret it and bring meaning to the text in different ways. I think this is important to remember as a teacher. There is not always one right answer. At times, it takes extra effort as a teacher to try to figure out how a student comes to a meaning that may be different from what other students came to. Instead of just assuming the student didn’t understand the text, it is important to think of all possible meanings that can be constructed from it. Goodman also discusses reading as a language of cue systems. I found the three different cue systems to be very interesting. I am able to think about what system my students are using, and therefore which skills they need to be taught in order to use the other systems interchangeably.

    Everyone has different perceptions based on our backgrounds and life experiences. It is important to take this into account when teaching our students. When reading, students are all going to perceive texts differently based on their experiences. I think in The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down the Hmong have a negative perception of medicine in the United States because they do not have a full understanding of it. For example, the Hmong think doctors are taking blood from their patients and they don’t understand why they are doing it. In order to change perceptions, it is important to provide people with information and knowledge. In the classroom, the best way to help children broaden their knowledge and open their minds to other perceptions is through class discussion and exposure to a variety of texts. This way, children can learn about each other as well as different cultures and begin to better understand others. This can transfer over into what meaning they construct out of texts.

  11. Meredith Kelleher on February 28, 2010 7:46 pm

    After Goodman’s demystification of the process of reading, my thoughts of reading have grown and changed greatly. Reading is not a simple process of decoding words and then comprehending the text. Goodman refers to reading as, “a unity” between reading, writing and written texts. Reading is a transactional sociopsycholinguistic process. “I came to consider reading as an active, receptive language process and readers as users of language” (P. 13), Goodman says. Reading includes the process of thought, language and their relationships. I found figure 1-2, on page 16 extremely interesting and enlightening. Reading is made up of a theory of communication, language development, cognition and comprehension, and a theory of language. Who ever thought reading was made up of all of these categories? Readers must focus on characteristics of texts and the meaning behind it. We read in order to construct meaning and there are many different reasons why people read. There’s environmental reading, informational reading, ritualistic reading, etc. As readers we use a language cueing system to make sense of the print as well as cognitive strategies in order to comprehend. I’ve come to learn that there are different cycles of the reading process, such as the visual cycle, the perceptual cycle, the syntactic cycle and the semantic cycle. The background knowledge, experiences, and cultural traditions we bring to the table as individual readers is what helps us create different meanings from text.

    This will lead me into my thoughts of perception. Perception reminds me of making judgements. We create perceptions of everything around us. We can have perceptions of people, perceptions of a baseball game, perceptions of clothing, etc. Perceptions do not end. Perception is our own thoughts or opinions of anyone or anything. One’s perception can be the reason one can “misdiagnose” someone or something. As teachers we create perceptions of our students as well as the other way around. Students can create perceptions of their teacher. Everyone’s perception is different. Perceptions can be where we formulate judgements that may or may not be true. We can only perceive what we observe and see. As teachers, that is how we need to look at our students. We are with them everyday for hours at a time. This is when we observe what they are doing, how they are acting, etc. There may be reasons a child is acting a certain way one day, and another way the next day. We cannot have a perception of a child’s home life when we know nothing about it. It’s important to know and obtain as much information as possible. We need to remember to be objective rather than subjctive when pertaining to our children.

  12. Margaret C. Bena (Kelly) on February 28, 2010 7:53 pm

    Question 1
    My pedagogy has become stronger in what I believe to be true. Goodman states: “Meaning is in the reader and the writer, not in the text.” Students are not blank slates when they walk into our classrooms. They come to us full of experiences. Some of the experiences that they have had are positive and others are negative. Whatever the experiences they have had they are bringing them to the text that they are reading. It is our jobs as professionals in the field to learn from the experiences that our students have had and permit them the freedom to express themselves. It is through the share that this avenue is open. The students should feel the freedom to express what their thoughts are on the topic that is being written about. Allow them to essentially educate their peers and us about what they have learned through the text. However, this can only occur when the classroom environment is one that is nurturing and the students feel safe.
    Once the classroom environment has been created, it is our jobs as professionals to create positive experiences for the students in our classroom. The texts that we choose or the students choose should be ones that are going to potentially further them as readers. As they are reading they should have a focus and understanding of why they are reading this text. They should have a “want” from the text. If the student feels that they are not going to learn or get anything out of the text, then they really have no connection to the text. They will not have a positive experience and remember that.
    Question 2
    Perception is referring to a kind of process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. I apply this in my classroom by watching my students. By watching their body language, their approach to different classroom tasks, and their interaction with their peers I am able to understand a lot about them.
    An example of this would be a student in my class who has terrible social issues. He has been in the school for three years and has had a history of poor classroom behavior and no friends in the school. He is picked on by his peers and walks with his head down. However, he is very bright and scores almost perfect on state and city exams.
    To many of the teachers who have had interaction with him say he is a “know it all” and does not have any friends. To me, he is a bright young man, that needs to be in a classroom, where he feels that he is accepted for who he is and not only the knowledge that he has. In past classes the teachers would allow him to work alone and to compare him to other students in the room. This widened the gap socially that he had with his peers.
    In my class’ he is not permitted to work alone, and has to take turns in being the lead in a group. With the positive interactions that he has been able to have with his peers, he is more accepted.
    The perception that his peers had of him was created by the way in which past teachers presented him to the class. Now, that perception has changed and he has more positive interactions with his peers.

  13. Jessica McCarson on February 28, 2010 9:01 pm

    1) After reading Goodman’s interpretation on the process of reading, my pedagogy has definitely changed. As we previously talked about in class, I thought of reading as having to do with phonics, decoding words, and comprehension. I always thought of reading as a process. However, I never thought of it as a transaction. “Meaning is constructed through transactions with the text” (15). Goodman’s theory on comprehending and comprehension stood out to me. Comprehending, according to Goodman, is “a constructive process in which readers make sense of text” (25). I always thought of comprehension as the most important part about reading and should be focused on the most. I still think it is a very important part of reading but it is not the only part to focus on. In Goodman’s article, “What is Reading,” he states that “no two readers will ever produce the same meaning for a given text” (2). I agree with him on this and I think it’s very important for teachers to realize this. Throughout the article, Goodman says that reading is making sense of print and that miscues have to be made in the process of reading. This also stood out to me. Making mistakes is a good thing and I agree with Goodman when he disagrees with other researchers that think “mistakes reflect incompetence” (5). Before reading that article, I never thought of mistakes as part of the process of reading. I used to think that if a student makes to many mistakes while reading that he or she would not understand the text. Since reading the articles and watching that video, my thought on that has definitely changed.

    2) Perception, to me, means the way an individual sees something. Everyone’s perception is different. I feel that depends on the experience that individual has. I feel it relates to our students because we have different perceptions on them. We see them differently then they see us. I also feel that perception is making a judgment. We make judgments about our students and sometimes those judgments change. I feel it’s like when we “misdiagnose” a student. When a teacher “misdiagnoses” a student, that teacher is making a judgment about that student. As teachers we have to remember, that just because we have a perception on a student, it does not mean that the perception is correct. Everyone sees things differently. When reading, students will have different perceptions of the text. I think this relates back to Goodman when he said that “no two readers will ever produce the same meaning for a given text” (2). I feel no two readers will have the exact same perception on a given text.

  14. Jenna Tucciarone on February 28, 2010 10:32 pm

    Question #1
    After Goodman’s demystification of the process of reading, my pedagogy has changed by making me more aware of the various components that make up ‘reading’. Like Goodman says reading is a process. He feels it is a single reading process. Within this process he states, “We find diversity within the unity of a single socio-psycholinguistic reading process-a single way of making sense or written language.” It is like a well-oiled machine with many parts working together to help it run smoothly. The process of reading entails speaking, listening, writing, comprehending, decoding, fluency, etc. The more proficient a student becomes in each of these skills, the better reader they become. When I first began teaching my idea of reading was much different than it is now. Through experiences with my students and the knowledge I have gained from my courses, I have become much more aware of the wide array of learning styles. Just as we interpret text differently by making our own sense of what we read, students like the little girl in the video use their own strategies to gain meaning from the text. Goodman has helped provide his readers with a better insight as to what can hinder the reading process. Another interesting point Goodman makes that has shaped my pedagogy explains that “Comprehension, at some level, is always the end product of any act of reading…it goes on during reading and even long afterwards as the reader reconsiders and reconstructs what has been comprehended.” Comprehension does not stop when a test is over, rather it carries over into other areas and allows us to make connections and reshape our ideas as they relate to other texts or personal experiences.

    Question #2
    Perception is a unified awareness derived from sensory processes. Teachers must be aware of their students’ strengths and weaknesses. Being perceptive to individual needs helps to target areas that can be better addressed. To lead a meaningful discussion, teachers must promote the idea of perception and welcome the opinions and views of all students. As we learn from one another through discussions held during class, so do our students. We teach in different schools with different populations of children. We bring different stories and experiences based upon our background or position. The same goes for our students. They are not all exposed to the same morals, religion, traditions, experiences, food, cultures, language, and so on. Without being conscious of it, we often form perceptions based upon our background. Two people may look at the same picture or read the same story and derive two totally different meanings. Lastly, it is important to distinguish the different between perception and judging, especially to our students.

  15. Jenna Favuzza on February 28, 2010 11:03 pm

    I never imagined all the components that go into reading. After reflecting on Goodman’s articles about reading, it makes me appreciate so much more what is going on internally as students try to make sense of text. As we discussed in class, Goodman argues that reading is a transactional process. I never thought of the transaction that has to happen between a reader and a writer. A writer must send a unified text to the reader, who in turn makes use of graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic cues to comprehend what is written. “…Reading is meaning seeking, tentative, selective, and constructive” (23). I think it’s interesting that Goodman describes reading as tentative because students are always reconfiguring old information into new schemas. From Goodman I have realized that the struggling reader is probably doing a lot more while reading than what teachers can see.

    A person’s perception is their own thoughts, feelings, and opinions on a subject. As people read, they form different perceptions and take away different information based on what they feel is important. Even as we read Goodman’s articles or the Fadiman book, what I step away with is different than my peers. As Goodman argues, “…Readers must use their selection strategies to choose only the most useful information from all that is available” (29). Our students may read the same text, but perceive and connect to parts of it differently. Their culture, background knowledge, and experiences can influence how they view a text or aesthetic education experience. As teachers we have to make sure our students feel we value and respect their opinions. Also, we need to teach our students that it is ok to think differently than others.

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